The herb Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn (Maidenhair fern) belongs to the Pteridaceae family. In medical and pharmaceutical textbooks of Iranian Traditional Medicine, it is referred to as “Pare-siavashan.” Ancient physicians used the fronds of Maidenhair fern as a single medicine or in combination with other plants in multi-herbal formulations to treat a variety of diseases. The herb fronds were also evaluated for their numerous pharmacological effects due to their different chemical compositions. As a result, the current study looked at Maidenhair fern’s traditional uses as well as its modern pharmacological and toxicological effects. In modern medicine, maidenhair fern has been shown to have anti-diabetic, anti-convulsant, analgesic, hypocholesterolemic, goitrogenic, anti-thyroidal, antibacterial, antifungal, wound healing, anti-obesity, anti-hair loss, anti-asthmatic, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal and antispasmodic, antioxidant, diuretic, anti-urolithiatic, and Some of the confirmed pharmacological effects were declared by ancient physicians. The frond of the maidenhair fern is a good candidate for clinical use. As a result, future research on the other effects mentioned in traditional medicine is recommended.